Ge’ez – Tigrinya translation of the Sumerian King List (SKL) – Part 7


One thing you have to ask yourself is how does Ge’ez/Tigrinya translation give an accurate historical and contextual etymology which makes much more sense than the manistream translations. I will leave you to your own judgement.


First rulers of Uruk

Ur-Nungal – ዐር ንእንገል – (reigned for 30 years)

ang – ዐንግ – chain for the neck, nose ring, ear ring.

angug – ዐንጉግ – turtle, lizard.

hungugu – ሕንጉጉ – monster.

gal – ጋል – female, girl.

Arra – አረ – reap, harvest.

Ure’n – እርእን – he saw.

nu’n – ንዑን – for him.

urina’ – ዕሪና – equality, state of equality, agreement.

hanga – ሐንገ – shoulder.

‘Ora – ዖረ – got blind.

An/ini/Annuna/Nin – አን/ኢኒ/አኑና – title of the God’s.

nage – ነጌ – elephants, elephant tusk.

Ur Nu’hungal – ዕር ሐንገረ – Ur on his shoulders.

Ur nunagel – ዕር ንእነጌል – To Ur for the Elephants.

Urran Negal – አረን ንጋል -he reaped the elephants.

Urina gal – ዕሪና ጋል – state of equality for females.

Ora- Ne’negal – ዖረ ንእኒጋል – he got blind for a daughter of a Goddess.

The contextual and symbolic etymology tells us that Ur-Nungal ruled over to and it could also tell us that he was the master at hunting elephants. It could also refer to that he was the King who gave special rights to females in Ur and Uruk. It could also mean that he was the King who carried Ur in his shoulders, symbolically, or he got blinded after going after the daughter of a Goddess which remained as his epithet as that is how it was in the ancient times.

mainstream translation

Ur-Nungal of Uruk was the sixth Sumerian ruler in the First Dynasty of Uruk (ca. 26th century BC), according to the Sumerian King List, which also claims he ruled 30 years. Both the Sumerian King List and the Tummal Chronicle state he was the son of Gilgamesh, but only the Sumerian King List records he was the father of Udul-kalama.


Udul-kalama – እደል ከለመ – (reigned for 15 years)

‘Ud – ዕድ – people, man, male.

‘ed – እድ – hand, palm.

adl – አድል – tunic, garment, shirt.

‘eda – ዕዳ – responsibility, guilt, sin, punishment.

‘edo – ዕዶ – adversary, enemy.

dale – ደለ – he wanted, he looked for.

K’lama – ኩለመ – everyone.

Qal – word, a promise.

Kal – ክል – everything, total.

Kal’a – ከልአ – prohibit, forbid, reject, refuse.

Kal’e – ካልአ – other, make two, both, twofold.

Kal’a – ከልዐ – peel off, strip off, undress, remoce, dislocate.

ule – እለ – to say, said.

qalama – ቀለመ – write.

Udule Kalama -እደለ ኩልማ – He wanted everything.

Edu ul Qalama – እዱ ቀለመ – If he said it, it is his word.

Udule Kala’ma – እደለ ካልእማ – He wanted twofold.

Udule Kala’ma – እደለ ከልእማ – He prohibited what he wanted.

The contextual and symbolic etymology tells us that he was a King who prohibited many things to his people. It could also refer to the King kept his word and his promises to his people which could tell us that he was trusted by his people.

mainstream translation

Udul-kalama of Uruk was the seventh Sumerian ruler in the First Dynasty of Uruk (ca. 26th century BC), according to the Sumerian King List. He was a son of Ur-Nungal and grandson of Gilgamesh. However, unlike his predecessors, he left no other known documents or relics mentioning his name, and he may have been one of several minor kings of Uruk added to the list, who reigned when hegemony was actually held by the first dynasty of Ur.


La-ba’shum – ለአበአሸመ – (reigned for 9 years)

la – ለ – for.

Ab – አብ – father.

Sum/Shum – ስም/ሽም – name, fame glory.

Sema/shema – ሴመ/ሼመ – put in place, ordain, annoint.

Laba Shuma – ለአብ ሽም – for the name of his father/ for the glory of his father.

Laba Shema – ለአብ ሼመ – His father annointed him.

The contextual and symbolic etymology is self expalnatory. He is regining to keep his father’s legacy. it could also be reaffirmed that it translates to, “he was appointed by his father” which explains why he wants to keep his father’s legacy. it means that his father was a King which could make Udul-Kalama his father.

mainstream translation

La-ba’shum of Uruk was the eighth Sumerian ruler in the First Dynasty of Uruk (ca. 26th century BC), according to the Sumerian King List.


En-nun-tarah-ana – እኑን ተ/ጠራሕ አነ – (he reigned for 8 years)

Tar’a – ጠረአ – shout, cry, appeal, lift one’s voice.

rehe – ርሔ – good fragrance, good smell.

roha – ሮሐ – fan, a breeze by faning, whisk.

tar’a – ተራእ – it/he was seen.

erah – እራሕ – palm of hand.

An/ini/Annuna/Nin – አን/ኢኒ/አኑና – title of the God’s.

Ir/Er – ኢር/ኤር – light, Sun.

En’un – እንዑን – to him.

En’non Erahana – እንዖን ርሔን – his smelled like the God’s.

En’nun tara’ an – እንዑን ተራእን አኑ – to him, Anu manifested.

En’nun tara’na – እንዑን ጠራዕና – To him, we appealed.

The contextual and symbolic etymology tells us that he was a King beloved by the God’s. It could also tell us that he was a just King that the people used to come and speak about their grievances.

manistream translation

En-nun-tarah-ana of Uruk was the ninth Sumerian ruler in the First Dynasty of Uruk (ca. 26th century BC), according to the Sumerian King List, reigning for 8 years.


The language of our collective consciousness

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