Ge’ez – Tigrinya translation of the Sumerian King List (SKL) – Part 7


One thing you have to ask yourself is how does Geโ€™ez/Tigrinya translation give an accurate historical and contextual etymology which makes much more sense than the manistream translations. I will leave you to your own judgement.


First rulers of Uruk

Ur-Nungal – แ‹แˆญ แŠ•แŠฅแŠ•แŒˆแˆ – (reigned for 30 years)

ang – แ‹แŠ•แŒ – chain for the neck, nose ring, ear ring.

angug – แ‹แŠ•แŒ‰แŒ – turtle, lizard.

hungugu – แˆ•แŠ•แŒ‰แŒ‰ – monster.

gal – แŒ‹แˆ – female, girl.

Arra – แŠ แˆจ – reap, harvest.

Ure’n – แŠฅแˆญแŠฅแŠ• – he saw.

nu’n – แŠ•แ‹‘แŠ• – for him.

urina’ – แ‹•แˆชแŠ“ – equality, state of equality, agreement.

hanga – แˆแŠ•แŒˆ – shoulder.

‘Ora – แ‹–แˆจ – got blind.

An/ini/Annuna/Nin โ€“ แŠ แŠ•/แŠขแŠ’/แŠ แŠ‘แŠ“ โ€“ title of the Godโ€™s.

nage – แŠแŒŒ – elephants, elephant tusk.

Ur Nu’hungal – แ‹•แˆญ แˆแŠ•แŒˆแˆจ – Ur on his shoulders.

Ur nunagel – แ‹•แˆญ แŠ•แŠฅแŠแŒŒแˆ – To Ur for the Elephants.

Urran Negal – แŠ แˆจแŠ• แŠ•แŒ‹แˆ -he reaped the elephants.

Urina gal – แ‹•แˆชแŠ“ แŒ‹แˆ – state of equality for females.

Ora- Ne’negal – แ‹–แˆจ แŠ•แŠฅแŠ’แŒ‹แˆ – he got blind for a daughter of a Goddess.

The contextual and symbolic etymology tells us that Ur-Nungal ruled over to and it could also tell us that he was the master at hunting elephants. It could also refer to that he was the King who gave special rights to females in Ur and Uruk. It could also mean that he was the King who carried Ur in his shoulders, symbolically, or he got blinded after going after the daughter of a Goddess which remained as his epithet as that is how it was in the ancient times.

mainstream translation

Ur-Nungal of Uruk was the sixth Sumerian ruler in the First Dynasty of Uruk (ca. 26th century BC), according to the Sumerian King List, which also claims he ruled 30 years. Both the Sumerian King List and the Tummal Chronicle state he was the son of Gilgamesh, but only the Sumerian King List records he was the father of Udul-kalama.


Udul-kalama – แŠฅแ‹ฐแˆ แŠจแˆˆแˆ˜ – (reigned for 15 years)

‘Ud – แ‹•แ‹ต – people, man, male.

‘ed – แŠฅแ‹ต – hand, palm.

adl – แŠ แ‹ตแˆ – tunic, garment, shirt.

‘eda – แ‹•แ‹ณ – responsibility, guilt, sin, punishment.

‘edo – แ‹•แ‹ถ – adversary, enemy.

dale – แ‹ฐแˆˆ – he wanted, he looked for.

K’lama – แŠฉแˆˆแˆ˜ – everyone.

Qal – word, a promise.

Kal – แŠญแˆ – everything, total.

Kal’a – แŠจแˆแŠ  – prohibit, forbid, reject, refuse.

Kal’e – แŠซแˆแŠ  – other, make two, both, twofold.

Kal’a – แŠจแˆแ‹ – peel off, strip off, undress, remoce, dislocate.

ule – แŠฅแˆˆ – to say, said.

qalama – แ‰€แˆˆแˆ˜ – write.

Udule Kalama -แŠฅแ‹ฐแˆˆ แŠฉแˆแˆ› – He wanted everything.

Edu ul Qalama – แŠฅแ‹ฑ แ‰€แˆˆแˆ˜ – If he said it, it is his word.

Udule Kala’ma – แŠฅแ‹ฐแˆˆ แŠซแˆแŠฅแˆ› – He wanted twofold.

Udule Kala’ma – แŠฅแ‹ฐแˆˆ แŠจแˆแŠฅแˆ› – He prohibited what he wanted.

The contextual and symbolic etymology tells us that he was a King who prohibited many things to his people. It could also refer to the King kept his word and his promises to his people which could tell us that he was trusted by his people.

mainstream translation

Udul-kalama of Uruk was the seventh Sumerian ruler in the First Dynasty of Uruk (ca. 26th century BC), according to the Sumerian King List. He was a son of Ur-Nungal and grandson of Gilgamesh. However, unlike his predecessors, he left no other known documents or relics mentioning his name, and he may have been one of several minor kings of Uruk added to the list, who reigned when hegemony was actually held by the first dynasty of Ur.


La-ba’shum – แˆˆแŠ แ‰ แŠ แˆธแˆ˜ – (reigned for 9 years)

la – แˆˆ – for.

Ab – แŠ แ‰ฅ – father.

Sum/Shum – แˆตแˆ/แˆฝแˆ – name, fame glory.

Sema/shema – แˆดแˆ˜/แˆผแˆ˜ – put in place, ordain, annoint.

Laba Shuma – แˆˆแŠ แ‰ฅ แˆฝแˆ – for the name of his father/ for the glory of his father.

Laba Shema – แˆˆแŠ แ‰ฅ แˆผแˆ˜ – His father annointed him.

The contextual and symbolic etymology is self expalnatory. He is regining to keep his father’s legacy. it could also be reaffirmed that it translates to, “he was appointed by his father” which explains why he wants to keep his father’s legacy. it means that his father was a King which could make Udul-Kalama his father.

mainstream translation

La-ba’shum of Uruk was the eighth Sumerian ruler in the First Dynasty of Uruk (ca. 26th century BC), according to the Sumerian King List.


En-nun-tarah-ana – แŠฅแŠ‘แŠ• แ‰ฐ/แŒ แˆซแˆ• แŠ แŠ – (he reigned for 8 years)

Tar’a – แŒ แˆจแŠ  – shout, cry, appeal, lift one’s voice.

rehe – แˆญแˆ” – good fragrance, good smell.

roha – แˆฎแˆ – fan, a breeze by faning, whisk.

tar’a – แ‰ฐแˆซแŠฅ – it/he was seen.

erah – แŠฅแˆซแˆ• – palm of hand.

An/ini/Annuna/Nin โ€“ แŠ แŠ•/แŠขแŠ’/แŠ แŠ‘แŠ“ โ€“ title of the Godโ€™s.

Ir/Er – แŠขแˆญ/แŠคแˆญ – light, Sun.

En’un – แŠฅแŠ•แ‹‘แŠ• – to him.

En’non Erahana – แŠฅแŠ•แ‹–แŠ• แˆญแˆ”แŠ• – his smelled like the God’s.

En’nun tara’ an – แŠฅแŠ•แ‹‘แŠ• แ‰ฐแˆซแŠฅแŠ• แŠ แŠ‘ – to him, Anu manifested.

En’nun tara’na – แŠฅแŠ•แ‹‘แŠ• แŒ แˆซแ‹•แŠ“ – To him, we appealed.

The contextual and symbolic etymology tells us that he was a King beloved by the God’s. It could also tell us that he was a just King that the people used to come and speak about their grievances.

manistream translation

En-nun-tarah-ana of Uruk was the ninth Sumerian ruler in the First Dynasty of Uruk (ca. 26th century BC), according to the Sumerian King List, reigning for 8 years.


The language of our collective consciousness

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