Ge’ez – Tigrinya translation of the Sumerian King List (SKL) – Part 8


One thing you have to ask yourself is how does Ge’ez/Tigrinya translation give an accurate historical and contextual etymology which makes much more sense than the manistream translations. I will leave you to your own judgement.


First rulers of Uruk

Mesh-He – ሜሰሕ/ሜሸሕ – (reigned for 36 years)

mas’a – መጽአ – come, happen to , occur, arise.

mosa’ – ሞሳእ – respond in a chant, speak.

masih – መሲሕ – anointed one.

mesah – ምሳሕ – lunch, feast.

Masih – መሲሕ – The annointed one.

The contextual and symbolic etymology refers to Mesh-he to being the annointed King most probably by En-nun-tarah-ana who could be his father.

mainstream translation

Mesh-He (r. c. 2588 BC – c. 2552 BC) is the 10th lugal of the first dynasty of Uruk. He ruled in modern-day Mesopotamia. Little is known about Mesh-he. The Sumerian King List puts him after En-Nun-Tarah-Ana and assigns 36 years of reign, it is believed he died by the year 2552 BC. He was followed by Melem-ana. His historicity, and that of his successors, however, is not completely established.


Melem-Ana – መለም አነ – (reigned for 6 years)

An/ini/Annuna/Nin – አን/ኢኒ/አኑና – title of the God’s.

lam’a – ለምዐ – resplendent, scintillate, shine, gleam.

melu – ምሉእ – full, filled, abundant.

malea – መልዐ – continue on a journey, set out, proceed further.

Me’Lam’an – ምለምዕን – And he shined.

Me’lama’Ana – ምለመዐ አን – And he shined like the Annuna.

Melum’Ana – መላእም አን – abundant like the Annuna.

Melem’Ana – ምልእም አነ – I filled it/I brought abundance.

The contextual and symbolic etymology tells us that he was a King who boasted about bringing abundace to the city or that he filled the granary. It could also tell us that he was a religious King who folllowed the rituals ordained by the Annuna.

mainstream translation

Melem-Ana of Unug (? – c. 2546 BC) was the 11th lugal of the First Dynasty of Uruk. He ruled in Mesopotamia in modern-day Iraq. Little is known about Melem-ana. The Sumerian King List places him after Mesh-he and he would have ruled for 6 years. It is believed he died after the year 2552 BC. Whether Lugal-kitun succeeded him, however, is not completely established.


Lugal-kitun – ልጋል ኪታን – (reigned for 36 years)

Ketan – ክታን – flax, linen, tunic.

Qat’ua – ቀተወ – impose a tax, make a tribute, exact payment.

Qatin – ቀጢን – thin, slim, delicate, weak.

agala – ዐገለ – oppress, deceive, cheat, do violence. defraud, rob.

gal – ጋል – girl, female.

Hug’ – ሕግ – lay down laws, laws.

Q’tea’ – ቛጠዐ – be vexed, be furious, be angry.

l’hugalqat’un – ለሕግ ለቃተወን – He made the laws to impose taxes.

Lagala-qatin – ለዐገለ ቅጠን – He oppressed the weak.

l’gal qetan – ልጋል ቀጣን – to a slim girl.

l’hugal’ketan – ለሕግ ክታን – he made the law to wear tunics/or wear some kind of specific cloth.

The contextual and symbolic etymology tells us that the ruler imposed new taxes on the people or he asked the people to pay tribute to his court. He could have also ordered for a specific type of clothing. As with the ancients, the scribes who wrote the tablets use the name that you were remembered for or assoicated with, like a nick name based on what you did and they don’t usually use the name or epithet the rule wanted.

mainstream translation

Lugal-kitun (Sumerian: 𒈗𒆠𒂅, lugal-ki-tun₃) was the 12th and last lugal of the first Dynasty of Uruk. He ruled in Mesopotamia in modern-day Iraq. Little is known about Lugal-kitun. According to the Sumerian King List, he reigned for 36 years. Lugal-kitun was overthrown by Mesannepada of Ur, ending the First Dynasty of Uruk and founding the First Dynasty of Ur.


First dynasty of Ur

Mesannepada – መጸአኒ ባዕደ – (reigned for 80 years)

ba’d – ባዕድ – alien, strange, unusual, outsider, foreigner.

mesanne – መጸአኒ – it came to me.

mesannebada – መጸአኒ ባዕድ – An Alien came to me/A stranger came to me.

The contextual and symbolic etymology is self explanatory. It tells how the King was visited by the Annuna and was given laws for all the cities of Babil (babylon). He is refering to them as Aliens or strangers as they have already left Earth and they only visit chosen people at specific times. The translation on the Lapis lazuli bead tells of how he was given the laws for each city.

mainstream translation

Mesannepada (Sumerian: 𒈩𒀭𒉌𒅆𒊒𒁕, mes-an-ne2-pad3-da), Mesh-Ane-pada or Mes-Anne-pada (“Youngling chosen by An”) was the first king listed for the First Dynasty of Ur (ca. the 26th century BC) on the Sumerian king list. He is listed to have ruled for 80 years, having overthrown Lugal-kitun of Uruk: “Then Unug (Uruk) was defeated and the kingship was taken to Urim (Ur)”. In one of his seals, found in the Royal Cemetery at Ur, he is also described as king of Kish.

Mesannepada was a son of Meskalamdug. A lapis-lazuli bead with the name of King Meskalamdug was found in Mari, in the so-called “Treasure of Ur”, and reads:

𒀭𒈗𒌦 / 𒈩𒀭𒉌𒅆𒊒𒁕 / 𒈗𒋀𒀊𒆠 / 𒌉𒈩𒌦𒄭 / 𒈗𒆧𒆠 / 𒀀 𒈬𒈾𒊒

dlugal-kalam / mes-an-ne2-pa3-da / lugal uri5ki / dumu mes-ug-du10 / lugal kishki / a munaru

The law for all / it came to me from an Alien / Law for Urik / and it also came the turn for the law of Kish / and they saw it.

mainstream translation of the bead – “To god Lugalkalam (“the Lord of the Land”, identified with Dagan or Enlil), Mesannepada, king of Ur, son of Meskalamdug, king of Kish, has consecrated this bead”.

The lapis Lazuli Mari bead

The language of our collective consciousness

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