Ge’ez/Tigrinya translation of Sumerian King list (SKL) – Part 1


One thing you have to ask yourself is how does Ge’ez/Tigrinya translation give an accurate historical and contextual etymology which makes much more sense than the manistream translations. I will leave you to your own judgement.

Alulim – አሉሊም

Elul – ዕሉል – who dwells apart.

Alam – ዓለም – this world, Universe, eternity, life time.

Alama – ዐለመ – teach, signal, indicate, mark.

Leul – ልዑል – elevated lofty, highest.

Leul – ልኡል – prince.

Aleulom – እልኡሎም – Their prince.

Aleulom – እልዕሎም – The highest one.

Elalim – እልዓለም – The one who teached.

Elualam – እሉዓለም – These life time.

The contextual and symbolic translations tell us that ‘Alulim’ was the Prince of Sumer, or the most prominent leader of the land which makes him a King. It could mena that he was the teacher who taught men as his Apkallu was Adapa.

Alulim is the first king whose name appears on numerous versions of the Sumerian King List (SKL). He was succeeded by Alalngar. The SKL states that Alulim ruled for several millennia. The SKL lists him as the first king of both Eridu and Sumer. His name does not appear in any sources from the Early Dynastic Period itself and he is thus not generally considered a historical figure.

After the kingship descended from heaven, the kingship was in Eridug (Eridu). In Eridug, Alulim became king; he ruled for 28,800 years.

The Uruk List of Kings and Sages pairs seven antediluvian kings each with his own apkallu. An apkallu was a sage in Sumerian religion and/or literature. The first apkallu (Adapa) is paired up with Alulim.

Alalngar – አልዐልንጋር

Nagara – ነገረ – proclaim, speak, say, tell, recite, report, announce, indicate, inform, declare.

Alal – ዐልዓል – rose, higher, picked, start.ed

Leul – ልዑል – elevated lofty, highest.

Leul – ልኡል – prince.

Alalnagar – አላዐል ነገር – He rose and proclaimed.

Aleulnagar – እልዑልነገር – The elevated one proclaimed.

Aleulnagar – እልኡል ነገር – The Prince announced.

Alalnagar – ዐልዓል ነገር -The one who incites disputes.

The contextual and symbolic translation tells us that Alalngar rose and proclaimed, what he did he proclaim, maybe a war as the city of Kingship was moved to Bad-tibira after him. The last translation which i believe is the most accurate translation tells us that he was the king who enjoyed to start a fight, in this case to war. And it could be the reason that the city of kingship was moved to bad-tibira.

Alalngar (also written as: Alalĝar, Alalgar, or Alaljar)(Sumerian:𒀉𒋭𒃻) was the second ensí of Eridu, according to the Sumerian King List. He was also the second king of Sumer. Also according to the Sumerian King List: Alalngar was preceded by Alulim. Additionally, Alalngar was succeeded by En-men-lu-ana of Bad-tibira. Alalngar was said to have reigned for thirty-six-thousand years.

Bad-tibira – ባድ ቲቢራ

Be’ud – ብዑድ – foreign, alien, strange, unusual, changed.

Ba’ada – በዐደ -separate, distinguish, change, render Alien.

Ba’at – በአት – entry, entrance, beginning.

Ba’at – በአት – cave, lair, den.

Tibb – ጢብ – wisdom, knowledge.

er’a – እራእ – he saw.

Are’a – አረአ – was shown.

Be’ud tibber’a – ብዑድ ጢብ እራእ – foreign knowledge, she saw it.

Be’ud – tibbare’a – ብዑድ ጢብ እራእAlien wisdom, was shown.

Ba’at tibber’a – በአት ጢብ እራእ – The cave of wisdom, he saw.

Ba’at tibber’a – በአት ጢብ እራእ – The entrance of knowledge was shown.

The contextual and symbolic translations tell us that bad-tibira was an important city were humans were taught archaic knowledge. It also tells us that is was an enclosed city with it;s own entrance. I believe this is where the first secret teachings were given to modern human students who later became king’s by the Annuna.

Bad-tibira (Sumerian: 𒂦𒁾𒉄𒆠, bad3-tibiraki), “Wall of the Copper Worker(s)”, or “Fortress of the Smiths”, identified as modern Tell al-Madineh, between Ash Shatrah and Tell as-Senkereh (ancient Larsa) in southern Iraq, was an ancient Sumerian city, which appears among antediluvian cities in the Sumerian King List. Its Akkadian name was Dûr-gurgurri. It was also called Παντιβίβλος (Pantibiblos) by Greek authors such as Berossus, transmitted by Abydenus and Apollodorus. This may reflect another version of the city’s name, Patibira, “Canal of the Smiths”.

En-men-Lu-ana – እን መን ሉአነ

En men – እን መን – And who ?, So who ?, to whom ?

Ana – አነ – I, me, mine.

Le’ul – ልዑል – higher, superior, lofty, elevated.

En Men Le’ul Ana – እን መን ልዑል አነ – And who is elevated than me ?

En Men Le’ul Ana – እን መን ልዑል አነ – And who is higher than me ?

The contextual and symbolic translations tells us that his title was, ‘And who is higher than me ?’, he is asking the people if there is anyone more fit for the Kingship. His Kingship was established after the main city was moved from Eridu to Bad-tibira, It could mean that he was the one who came on top from the rest of the contenders to secure the Kingship after some kind of power struggle which explains his tilte in the form of a question.

En-men-lu-ana appears as the first king of Bad-tibira in some version of the Sumerian King List. The list claims that En-men-lu-ana ruled for 43,200 years. The kings on the early part of the SKL are usually not considered historical, except when they are mentioned in contemporary documents. En-men-lu-ana is not one of them.

Ene-men-gal-ana – እን መን ገል አነ

Gela – ግላ – veil, envelop, cover, obscure, prevent from seeing.

Gual – ጐል – girl, female.

Gala – ገላ – body.

Galla – ገለ – lying on the back.

En men – እን መን – And who ?, So who ?, to whom ?

Ana – አነ – I, me, mine.

Ene men gual ana – እን መን ጐል አነ – To whom, daughter of mine ?

Ene men gala ana – እን መን ገለ አነ – To whom, will i lay on the back ?

Ene men gela ana -እን መን ግላ አነ – So who, will obscure my view ?

Ene men gela ana – እን መን ገላ አነ – To whom, will my body be ?

The contextual and symbolic translations tell us that the King was looking for a groom to his daughter, maybe she was his only daughter and he was looking for the pefect man ot marry his daughter to. It could also mean that he was procliaming that he will lay for no one. The translation tells the names of sumerian King’s are full sentences with encrypted messages.

En-men-gal-ana appears as the second king of Bad-tibira in some version of the Sumerian King List. According to that literary composition, En-men-gal-ana ruled for 28,800 years. The kings on the early part of the SKL are usually not considered historical, except when they are mentioned in Early Dynastic documents. En-men-gal-ana is not one of them.

Dumuzid – ዱሙእዚኢድ

Damma – ደመ – astonish, astound, miraculous.

ezi – እዚ – this

Id – ኢድ – hand.

Dam – ደም – blood.

Demu – ድሙ – Cat

Damaezid – ደመ እዚ ኢድ – miraculous hand.

Damezid – ደም እዚ ኢድ – The blood in his hand.

Dumuzid – ዱሙእዚኢድ – hands of a cat.

The contextual and symbolic meaning tells that Dumuzid as a God/King of the Shepherds has magical hands. It also tells that the blood in his hands was unique. The last one tells us that he hands of a cat. we could understand from the translation that Dumuzid was an antediluvian God/King of Sumer whose hands could perform supernatural things as his epithet was the shepherd which is fitting.

Dumuzid (Sumerian: 𒌉𒍣𒉺𒇻, romanized: Dumuzid sipad) or Dumuzi, later known by the alternative form Tammuz,[b] is an ancient Mesopotamian god associated with shepherds, who was also the primary consort of the goddess Inanna (later known as Ishtar). In Sumerian mythology, Dumuzid’s sister was Geshtinanna, the goddess of agriculture, fertility, and dream interpretation. In the Sumerian King List, Dumuzid is listed as an antediluvian king of the city of Bad-tibira and also an early king of the city of Uruk.

In addition to being the god of shepherds, Dumuzid was also an agricultural deity associated with the growth of plants. Ancient Near Eastern peoples associated Dumuzid with the springtime, when the land was fertile and abundant, but, during the summer months, when the land was dry and barren, it was thought that Dumuzid had “died”. During the month of Dumuzid, which fell in the middle of summer, people all across Sumer would mourn over his death. This seems to have been the primary aspect of his cult. In Lagash, the month of Dumuzid was the sixth month of the year. This month and the holiday associated with it was later transmitted from the Sumerians to Babylonians and other East Semitic peoples, with its name transcribed into those languages as Tammuz. A ritual associated with the Ekur temple in Nippur equates Dumuzid with the snake-god Ištaran, who in that ritual, is described as having died.

En-sipad-zid-ana – እን ሲበድ ዝድ አነ

Sab’e – ሰብዕ – seven.

Sab’a – ሰብዐ – make seven.

Sub’e – ስብዕ – witchcraft, sorcery.

Seba’e – ስባዔ – seven year cycle.

Sebe’ -ሰብእ – men, people, person.

Suba’e – ሱባኤ – human nature incarnation.

Seba’t – ስብአት – humanity,

Sebuh – ስቡሕ – glorified, honored.

En men – እን መን – And who ?, So who ?, to whom ?

Zid – more.

Ana – አነ – I, me, mine.

‘ed – ዐድ – man.

id – ኢድ – hand.

En Siba’e zid ana – እን ስባዔ ዚድ አነ – I passed the 7 cycle. (1 sar = 3600 years)

En Sab’a zid ana -እን ሰብዐ ዚድ አነ I am the one with the seven hands.

En Sebad Zid ana – እን ስባዔ ዐድ ዚድ አነI am the one who increased the number of people.

The contextual and symbolic meaning tells us that En-sipad-zid-ana is telling his people that he has 7 hands, more than his predecessor Dumuzi though the God of Shepherds, who we know now has less than 7 hands. It could mean that he ruled for more than 7 sars rulling for 28,000 years. The last transaltion tell us that he is telling the people that he is the one who increased the number of the population. This all tells us that the most of the cuneiforms are written long after these antediluvian kings/Gods have gone, it was a time when when Gods used to be Kings.

En-sipad-zid-ana appears as the second king of Larak in some version of the Sumerian King List. According to that literary composition, En-sipad-zid-ana ruled for 28,800 years. The kings on the early part of the SKL are usually not considered historical, except when they are mentioned in Early Dynastic documents. En-sipad-zid-ana is not one of them.

Ene-men-dur-ana – እን መን ዱር አነ

Zimn – ዘመን – time, period, season.

zamma – ዘማ – fornicated.

zema – ዜማ – harmony, melody, tune.

En men – እን መን – And who ?, So who ?, to whom ?

be’ir – ብዒር – Ox, bull.

Darra – ደረ – dinner.

Dur – ዱር – forest.

Dor – ዶር – pearl.

Zimnbe’ir – ዘመን ብዒር – year of the bull.

Ene men Dar ana – እን መን ደር አነ – To whom should i give dinner ?

Ene men Dor ana – እን መን ዶር አነ – My pearl, for whom ?

Ene men Dur ana – እን መን ዱር አነ – My forest, for whom ?

The contextual and symbolic translations tell us that it was the age of Taurus during his reign and lots of oxes were sacrificed and there eas plent of food to for the people. He is attesting that everyone was fed. He reigned after Larag fell and the kingship was taken to Zimbir. It could also mean to whom should he inherit the city symbolically calling it his pearl as he is the first ruler in Zimbir and he is the one who developed it.

En-men-dur-ana (also Emmeduranki) of Zimbir (the city now known as Sippar) was an ancient Sumerian king, whose name appears in the Sumerian King List as the seventh pre-dynastic king of Sumer. He was said to have reigned for 21,000 years.

Ubara-tutu – ኡባራ ቲዩቱ

Tehut – ትሑት – humble

bara – በረ – He flew.

Taheti – ታሕቲ – lower, under.

Abar – አባር – thorn, prickle

Ebur – ዕቡር – arid, dry, sterlie.

Abar – ዓባር – dryness, bareness, drought, sterility.

ebray – ዕብራይ – hebrews (just for context)

Ubara Tehut – እበረ ትሑት – The humble one flew/ The humble one left.

Abar Tahti – ዓባር ታሕት – Sterile on the lower part/dryness in the lower part.

Ubray tehut – ዕብራይ ትሑት – The humble hebrew.

The contextual and symbolic translation tells us that Ubara tutu (considered to be Enoch, inak) left with the God’s as he was saved from the impending annihilation of the flood. He was the last antediluvian King of Sumer. It could also mean that Ubara Tutu didn’t have progenies, he was sterile. The last one translates as the humble hebrew.

Ubara-tutu (or Ubartutu) of Shuruppak was the last antediluvian king of Sumer. He was said to have reigned for 18,600 years (5 sars and 1 ner). He was the son of En-men-dur-ana, a Sumerian mythological figure often compared to Enoch, as he entered heaven without dying. Ubara-Tutu was the king of Sumer until a flood swept over his land, like Methuselah.

After the deluge, the kingship was reestablished in the northern city of Kish, according to the Sumerian king list.

Ubara-tutu is briefly mentioned in tablet XI of the Epic of Gilgamesh. He is identified as the father of Utnapishtim, a character who is instructed by the god Ea to build a boat in order to survive the coming flood.

Then the flood swept over, I will continue with part 2 of the SKL tomorrow with the Kings who reigned after the flood.

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