Ge’ez/Tigrinya translation of the Sumerian King List (SKL) – Part 2


One thing you have to ask yourself is how does Ge’ez/Tigrinya translation give an accurate historical and contextual etymology which makes much more sense than the manistream translations. I will leave you to your own judgement.

Jushur/ĜIŠ.UR – ጊስ ዑር

Gesa – ጌሰ – travel, leave, go.

Negus – ንጉስ – King.

Qasr – ቀጽር – fortify, beseige, blockade.

Gesa Ur – ጌሰ ዑር – Hr traveled to Ur.

Ngus Ur – ንጉስ ዑር – He was the King of Ur.

Qeser Ur – ቀጽር ዑር – The one who beseiged Ur/ The one who fortified Ur.

The contextual and symbolic translation tell us that he traveled or left for Ur. The second translation tells us he was the King of Ur too. The last translation tells us that he beseiged ur or he is the one who fortified Ur.

Mainstream translation

Jushur (cuneiform: 𒄑𒃡 ĜIŠ.UR3; Sumerian: Ĝušur) appears as a king of Kish in the Sumerian king list, a literary composition created in Mesopotamia at the beginning of the second millennium BC. He is either the first king on the list to be mentioned, or the first king after a flood, depending on the version of the SKL. According to the list, Jushur reigned for 1200 years. Jushur does not appear in Early Dynastic inscriptions. His historicity, like that of many other kings of the earlier parts of the Sumerian King List, is considered unlikely.

Ĝušur has also been transliterated in the literature as Jushur, Jucur, Gushur, Ngushur, and Gishur. An early reading of the cuneiform was Gaur.

Kullassina-bel – ኩል እሲኢና በል

Kullu – ኩሉ – all, total, everything.

Si’na – ሲኢና – she lost.

bel – በል – say.

Kullu esi’na bel – ኩሉ እሲኢና በል – Say she lost everything.

The contextual and symbolic meaning is very precise and accurate. It is telling us about a ruler of a city which lost everything. This make sense as he is a ruler of a city after it was devastated by the flood. It is telling us that his city which must have been a glorious city before the flood has now lost its glory and its treasures after the flood.

Mainstream translation

Kullassina-bel of Kish was the second king in the First Dynasty of Kish according to the Sumerian king list, which adds that he reigned for 960 years (or 900 in some copies).

As the name seems to be an Akkadian phrase meaning “All(kull) of them(assina) (were) lord(bel)”, it has sometimes been suggested that the occurrence of this name on the list was intended to denote a period of no central authority in the early period of Kish.

Nangishlishma – ነንጊሽሊሽማ

Gesa/Gesha – ጌሰ\ጌሸ – travel, leave, go.

Neges – ነገስ – become king, to be throned.

Se’ama – ሳዓማ – he kissed her.

Sema/shema – ስም\ሸም – name, glory, fame.

Nenegesh lishima – ነንገሽለሽማ – Let us travel for her name.

Neges lishima – ነገስ ለሽማ – He was made King in her name.

Nene ges lisema – ነንገጽ ለስዕማ – So that he could kiss her face.

The contextual and symbolic meaning tells us that the King was throned in the name and with the permission of a Goddess. The first translation tells us that that the people went on a pilgrimage in honor of the Goddess.

Mainstream translation

Nangishlishma of Kish (also written as Nanjiclicma) was the third Sumerian king in the First Dynasty of Kish,who reigned for 670 years according to some versions of the Sumerian king list. His name does not appear in Early Dynastic inscriptions, meaning that he is unlikely to have been a real historical person.

En-tarah-ana – እን ተራሐ አነ

Tara’ – ተራአ – was seen

Tar’a – ጠርአ – shout, cry, appeal, lift one’s voice.

An/Ini/Nin – እኒ\ኒን – a title for an elderly person (a title given to the God’s).

An Tara’ ana – አነ ተራአ አነ – An became visible to me.

En tar’a ana -እን ጠራአ አነ – they appealed to me.

The contextual and symbolic meaning tells us that An made himself visible to him or it is telling that the people or something else was appealing to hte King.

Mainstream translation

En-tarah-ana of Kish was the fourth Sumerian king in the First Dynasty of Kish, according to the Sumerian king list. The Weld-Blundell Prism was damaged at this point, so Thorkild Jacobsen had restored this ruler’s name as Bahina. En-tarah-ana is unlikely to have existed as his name does not appear on texts dating from the period in which he was presumed to have lived (Early Dynastic period). He is awarded a reign of 420 years, 3 months, and 3 and a half days. Why the length of his reign is so specific compared to the recorded lengths of the other kings of the Early Dynastic is unknown.

Babum – ባቡኦም

‘Ama – አመ – at that time of, on, when at that time.

’em – እም – mother

Babaya – ባበየ – jubilate, happy.

Ab’oum – አብኦም – their father.

Baboum – በብኦም – through their father.

Babayom – ባቢዮም – They Jubilated.

Babem – በአብእም – by the father and mother/ through the father’s mother.

The contextual and symbolic meaning tells us the city was jubilant because of the King coming to power. It could also tell us that he was made King because of his father or his father’s mother.

Mainstream translation

Babum of Kish was the fifth Sumerian king in the First Dynasty of Kish, according to the Sumerian king list. Babum is unlikely to have existed as his name does not appear on texts dating from the period in which he was presumed to have lived (Early Dynastic period).

Puannum – ብያኖም

Anew – ዓነወ – destroyed.

bayna – በይነ – between, because of, on account of.

beynu – በይኑ – alone, left alone, stranded.

Beyene – በየነ – judge, decide.

An/Ini/Nin – እኒ\ኒን – a title for an elderly person (a title given to the God’s).

baynoum – በይነኦም – betweem them.

B’annewom – ባአዕነዎም – He destoyed them.

beyanaoum – በያነኦም – their judgement.

Beannum – ብአንኦም – through their God’s/through their forefathers.

Beynoum – በይኖም – alone by themselves.

The contextual and symbolic translations tells that the King(s) made their judgement together. It tells us it wasn’t one King. The second translation tells us tha they were throned by the God’s permission or based on the lineage of his forefathers. It could also tell us that the ruler destroyed the city and it’s people, It could be that he was not a great ruler, but a destructive one.

Mainstream translation

Puannum of Kish was the sixth Sumerian king in the First Dynasty of Kish, according to the Sumerian king list.[1] Puannum is unlikely to have existed as his name does not appear on texts dating from the period in which he was presumed to have lived (Early Dynastic period).

Kalibum – ከልቦም

Kalebe – ከልቢ – Dog.

Gela – ግላ – veil, envelop, cover, obscure, prevent from seeing.

Gual – ጐል – girl, female.

Gala – ገላ – body.labam – clever, smart, good conduct..

Galla – ገለ – lying on the back.

Galaba – ገለበ – to catch a fish.

eyom – ኢዮም – they are.

Kale – ካልእ – other, different.

Kelebam – ከይለበም – without being smart.

Kaliboum – ከልቦም – Their dog.

Kaleaboum – ካልእ አብኦም – their father is different.

The contextual and symbolic meaning tells us the ruler(s) father were different or that they were from a different tribe. It could also tell us that it means ‘their dogs’ which is similar to the Akkadian translation of a hound, but i doubt it. The first translation tells us that the king reigned before he became wiser and that he was not a good king.

Mainstream translation

Kalibum of Kish was the seventh Sumerian king in the First Dynasty of Kish, according to the Sumerian king list. This name is written “Ga-lí-bu-um … normalized as Kalibum”, and is believed to be derived from the Akkadian for ‘hound’. Kalibum is unlikely to have existed as his name does not appear on texts dating from the period in which he was presumed to have lived (Early Dynastic period).

Kalumum – ካልዩሙም

Kale – ካልእ – other, different.

Kela’ – ከላእ – refuse, reject.

Kale’mom – ከልእሞም – They refused them/They rejected them.

Kalewom – ከሊእዎእ – he refused them/he rejected them.

The contextual and symbolic trnaslation tell us that they were rejected or refused. The second translation could tells us that the King refused or rejected them.

Mainstream translation

Kalumum (Sumerian:𒅗𒇻𒈬𒌝) of Kish was the eighth Sumerian king in the First Dynasty of Kish, according to the Sumerian king list. Like the other members of the First dynasty prior to Etana, he was named for an animal; his name “Kalumun” is Akkadian for “lamb”. Kalulum is unlikely to have existed as his name does not appear on texts dating from the period in which he was presumed to have lived (Early Dynastic period).

Leave a Reply

Please log in using one of these methods to post your comment:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.