Ge’ez/Tigrinya translation of the Sumerian King List (SKL) – Part 4


One thing you have to ask yourself is how does Ge’ez/Tigrinya translation give an accurate historical and contextual etymology which makes much more sense than the manistream translations. I will leave you to your own judgement.


First dynasty of Kish

Barsal-nuna – ባርሳል ኑና

bara – በረ – he flew

barh – በርህ – light up, brilliance, splendor.

be’er – ብዕር – Ox, bull.

ber’ – ብርዕ – reed, reed pen, stem of fruit.

Na’na – ናዐና – for us.

‘ela – ዔለ – roamed around, go astray, wander about restlessly.

sa’ala – ሰዐለ – paint, portray, depicit, fashion, form.

Sa’la – ሰአለ – ask, demand, enquire, intercede, beg, pray.

Ne’una – ንዑና – to come (plural)

Ber’sa’ala-nuna – ብርዕ ሰዐለ ናዐና – with the reed he painted for us.

Barasela -na’na – በረ ስዔለ ናዐናHe flew and wandered restlessly for us.

Barh’sa’la-na’na – በርህ ሳአለ ናዐና – brilliant light prayed for us.

Ber’sela-na’na – ብዕር ሳዔለ ናዐናThe Bull at that time wandered restlessly for us.

The contextual and symbolic etymology refers to Barsal-nuna as a King symbolized by the bull (or ruled during the age of Taurus) who was wandered around restlessly for his people. It could also refer to the Barsal-nuna as a priestly King who prayed for his people.

mainstream translation

Barsal-nuna (Sumerian: 𒁇𒊩𒉣𒈾 bar.sal.nun.na) of Kish was the seventeenth Sumerian king in the First Dynasty of Kish, according to the Sumerian King List. His father was En-me-nuna; he succeeded his brother Melem-Kish. His name may have meant Sheep of the Prince. Barsal (𒁇𒊩) means A sheep. Barsal-nuna is not mentioned in Early Dynastic documents, meaning that is likely that he was not a historical person.


Zamug – ዛሙግ

zema – ዜማ – harmony, melody.

zama – ዘማ – fornication, adultery.

‘age – ዐጌ – linen cloth, linen, flax.

moge’ – ሞግእ – strike, mortar for war.

Za – ዘ – that, who, which.

Gu’ – ጓ – certainly, doubtless.

Ge – ጌ – territory.

ug’e – እግእ – War.

Zamoge’ – ዘ ሞግእ – The one who striked.

Zemaugu – ዜማ እግእ – The sound of War.

Zamagu’ – ዘማጓ – he certainly fornicated.

The contextual and symbolic etymology refers to Zamug as King of War as the call for war was made repeatedly during his regin.

mainstream translation

Zamug of Kish was the eighteenth Sumerian king in the First Dynasty of Kish, according to the Sumerian king list. His father was Barsal-nuna, whom he succeeded as ruler. His name does not appear in other documents than the SKL, meaning that it is unlikely that he was a historical person.


Tizqar – ትዝቃር

zakar – ዘከር – memory, remember, recollect.

tazakar – ተዘከር – remember, keep in mind, be mindful, recollect, record keeper.

tazkar – ተዝካር – memorial day, remembrance,

te’ez’ – እትእዝ – one who commands, giving orders.

Qar – ቃር – Oil, Bitumen.

Te’ez’qar – እትእዝ ቃር – The one who commands the bitumen.

tazkar – ተዝካር – in memory of.

tazakar – ተዘከር – The one who remembers/The record keeper.

The contextual and symbolic etymology refers to Tizqar as the King who controlled the bitumen in his region. It could also refer to him keeping the memory of his father, Zamug.

mainstream translation

Tizqar of Kish was the nineteenth Sumerian king in the First Dynasty of Kish and succeeded his father Zamuq as a ruler, according to some versions of the Sumerian King List. His name does not appear in Early Dynastic inscriptions, meaning that he is unlikely to have been a real historical person.


Ilku – ለለክ

la – ለ – to, toward, for, with regard to, according to.

lak’a – ለክአ – inscribe, impress a seal, imprint.

lak’ua – ለኳ – strife, conflict, altercation.

lekeu’ – ልክው – weak eyed, feeble, weak.

liq – ሊቅ – learned, priestly.

Llak’ua – ለልኳ – towards conflict.

Lleq – ለሊቅ – for the priests.

Llekeu’ – ለልክው – according to his weak eyes/ with regard to his weakness.

The contextual and symbolic etymology refers to llku as a King with a lot of conflicts in his reign. It could refer to him being religious and his special relationship with the priesthood. He could also have been a King who was weak eyes or considered a weak King.

Ilku of Kish was the twentieth Sumerian king in the First Dynasty of Kish, according to the Sumerian King List. His name does not appear in Early Dynastic inscriptions, meaning that he is unlikely to have been a real historical person.


The language of our collective consciousness

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