Ge’ez/Tigrinya translation of the Sumerian King List (SKL) – Part 5


One thing you have to ask yourself is how does Ge’ez/Tigrinya translation give an accurate historical and contextual etymology which makes much more sense than the manistream translations. I will leave you to your own judgement.


First Dynasty of Kish

Iltasadum – ለልተሰደም – (reigned for 1200 years)

Tasadda – ተሰደ – banished, exiled, driven out, persecuted.

la – ለ – to, for, towards, to the advantage of, with regard to.

Sa’dawa – ጻዕደወ – be bright, be like light.

ltasadum – ለተሰደም – for the one who got exiled.

ltasadawum – ለጻዕደወም – for the one who became light.

The contextual and symbolic etymology refers to lltasadum being a King who was exiled or persecuted but loved by the people. It could refer to the King being a demi God and shined like the Annuna.

mainstream translation

Iltasadum of Kish was the twenty-first Sumerian king in the First Dynasty of Kish, according to the Sumerian King List. His name does not appear in Early Dynastic inscriptions, meaning that he is unlikely to have been a real historical person.


Enmebaragesi – እንመበረገሲ – (reigned for 900 years)

rages – ረገጽ – stamp on, trample, kick, rule with an iron fist.

raga – ረግዐ – congeal, become solid, become calm or to show patience.

enmo – እንሞ – texture, web.

bara – በረ – pierce, penetrate.

ba – into, through, in, at, by, on, by means of.

Anama – አነመ – he slept.

Anami – አናሚ – weaver.

Ges – ገጽ – face.

Mo’a – ሞአ – vanquish, conquer, overcome, defeat, subdue.

maba’ – መባእ – to penetrate, to proceed, to intermingle, to have intercourse.

Re’es – ርእስ – top, head, summit, the one on top, the head of everrything.

rasai – ረሳዒ – one who forgets.

Moabarasi – he defeated because of the head (in this case, his main commander)

Maba’resi – He penetrated to the top/head.

Mebarasi – to penetrate, he forgot.

Enmebaregesi – it was a rule with an Iron fist (It was a rule with the feet on the face, literally and figuratively)

The contextual and symbolic etymology refers to Enmebaragesi/Mebarasi as a cruel ruler who ruled with an iron fist. It could also refer to him defeating his enemies because of a brave commander/Gilgamesh at his disposal. I believe the scriber wanted to let us know about the brave commander who i believe is Gilgamesh as he later revolts and defeats Aga, the son of Enmebaragesi and the ends the first dynasty of Kish.

mainstream translation

Enmebaragesi (Sumerian:𒂗𒈨𒁈𒄄𒋛) originally Mebarasi (Sumerian:𒈨𒁈𒋛) was the penultimate king of the first dynasty of Kish and is recorded as having reigned 900 years in the Sumerian King List. Like his son and successor Aga he reigned during a period when Kish had hegemony over Sumer.a Enmebaragesi signals a momentous documentary leap from mytho-history to history, since he is the earliest ruler on the king list whose name is attested directly from archaeology.

The name construction of “Title A Place B-e si-Ø” (Official A who is appropriate for place B) was commonly used in the Early Dynastic onomasticon.

EN (𒂗): Honorific title that was not part of the original name, used on kings associated with cities sacred to Inanna in the mythical historiography of Ur-Namma’s dynasty.
ME (𒈨): Michalowski reads it as isib (priest), while Steinkeller concludes it is an abbreviated writing form of men (crown).b
BARA2 (𒁈): According to the onomastic it is a cultic/political place. However, if the pattern is “ME fit for Official A”, it would mean “ruler”.
SI (𒋛): Verb meaning “to fill”, which has more active force than the intransitive verb TUŠ (to sit, dwell), having a highly ideological meaning.
Given both options, the name can be translated as “Priest who permeates the throne” or “Crown fit for a ruler”.


Aga/ Ak Gal-Ukkin – አጋ/ዐጋ/አክ ጋል እኪን – (reigned for 625 years)

akko – አኮ – it negates a member in an affirmative sentence – by no means, not.

akkonu – አኮኑ – not, affirmative.

‘age – ዐጌ – linen cloth, flax, linen.

gala – veil, covering, envelop, darkness.

Gual/Gal – ጓል/ጋል – girl, female.

U’kun – እኮን – become, be, to become.

Gale – ጋሌ – ferret, weasel.

Gala-U’kun – ገለ እኮን – darkness, it became.

Gale-U’kun – ጋሌ እኮን – a weasel, he became.

Gal-U’kun – ጋል እኮን – female, he became.

The contextual and symbolic etymology tells us that Gal-Ukkin was a female or considered a female after the defeat by gilgamesh. The scribe is trying to portray the King as a coward portraying him as a weasel. It could also refer to the Kish falling under darkness after the collapse of the first dynasty. In all 3 translation the King is portrayed as a failed monarch.

Aga (Sumerian:𒀝𒂵) commonly known as Aga of Kish, was the twenty-third and last king in the first dynasty of Kish during the Early Dynastic I period. He is listed in the Sumerian King List and many sources as the son of Enmebaragesi. The Kishite king ruled the city at its peak, probably reaching beyond the territory of Kish, including Umma and Zabala.

The Sumerian poem Gilgamesh and Aga records the Kishite siege of Uruk after its lord Gilgamesh refused to submit to Aga, ending in Aga’s defeat and consequently the fall of Kish’s hegemony.

The name of Aga is Sumeriana and a relatively rarely attested personal name in Early Dynastic times, making his identification in royal texts spottable. His name appears in the Stele of Ushumgal, as the gal-ukkin (“Great Assembly official”).

AK (𒀝) was likely an Early Dynastic spelling of Akka, (the past particle of the Sumerian verb “to make”). The name in question is to be interpreted as a Sumerian genitival phrase, Akka probably means “Made by [a god]” (ak + Divine Name.ak).


First rulers of Uruk

Meshkiangasher – መሽኪያንገሸእር – (reigned for 324 years)

masqe – ምሳቄ – afflict, torment, plague, vex, suffering, pain.

masqe – መሰቄ – water reservior (plural).

masa – መጽአ – to come, to happen, to occur, arrival, arise.

Gasa 1 – ገሰ – feel, touch, handle.

Gasa 2 – ገሰ – scrape off, pluck out.

Gesa – ጌሰ – leave, go, travel.

gays – ጋይስ – shield, spear, haft of spear.

Er/Ir – ኤር/ኢር – light, Sun.

Kona – ኮነ – become, be, occur, happen.

mesa – መሰ – night, when it get dark.

Mesakuengash’er – መሰ ከውን ገሸ እር – at night it happens, he travels to the Sun.

Mesqiangash’er – መሳቀዮን ገሸ እር- he torments them and travels to the Sun.

The contextual and symbolic etymology tells us that Meshkiangasher used to travel to the Sun at night which could symbolize his father Utu, the Sun God. It could also refer to him tormenting his enemies and traveling to his father, the Sun God.

Meshkiangasher was a mythological king only mentioned in the Sumerian King List as the priest of the Eanna temple in Uruk, whose journey led him to the enter the sea and ascend the mountains.

The King list mentions Meshkiangasher as a descendant of the sun god Utu, who became the high priest of Inanna in the Eanna temple reigning for 324 years, and conceived his son and successor to the throne Enmerkar. His epithet concludes with his descent to the sea and ascent to the mountains, a journey which has been compared to the trajectory of the sun, believed by the Sumerians that made the exact travel and suitable for the “son of the sun-god”.


The language of our collective consciousness

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